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Sunday - July 5, 2015

In my view, the Christian religion is the most important and one of the first things in which all children, under a free government ought to be instructed.. .No truth is more evident to my mind than that the Christian religion must be the basis of any government intended to secure the rights and privileges of a free people.
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1828 Noah Webster Dictionary
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unite

UNI'TE, v.t. [L. unio, unitus.]

1. To put together or join two or more things, which make one compound or mixture. Thus we unite the parts of a building to make one structure. The kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland united, form one empire. So we unite spirit and water and other liquors. We unite strands to make a rope. The states of North America united, form one nation.

2. To join; to connect in a near relation or alliance; as, to unite families by marriage; to unite nations by treaty.

3. To make to agree or be uniform; as, to unite a kingdom in one form of worship; to unite men in opinions.

4. To cause to adhere; as, to unite bricks or stones by cement.

5. To join in interest or fellowship. Gen. 49.

6. To tie; to splice; as, to unite two cords or ropes.

7. To join in affection; to make near; as, to unite hearts in love.

To unite the heart, to cause all its powers and affections to join with order and delight in the same objects. Ps. 86.

UNI'TE, v.i.

1. To join in an act; to concur; to act in concert. All parties united in petitioning for a repeal of the law.

2. To coalesce; to be cemented or consolidated; to combine; as, bodies unite by attraction or affinity.

3. To grow together, as the parts of a wound.

The spur of a young cock grafted into the comb, will unite and grow.

4. To coalesce, as sounds.

5. To be mixed. Oil and water will not unite.













1828 Noah Webster Dictionary

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July 05, 2015
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Innovation is a key driver of entrepreneurial activity. Innovation from an entrepreneurial perspective is conceptually defined using the complementary views of Austrian economists Kirzner and Schumpeter. Incremental innovation is defined as entrepreneurial activity from Kirzner's perspective -- exploitation of awareness of market disequilibrium which appropriates value: market-sensing, customer-linking. Radical innovation is defined as entrepreneurial activity from Schumpeter's perspective -- exploration as a market-disequilibrium "creative destruction" which creates value: market-making, customer-driving. From a firm's perspective, innovation research in marketing addresses three fundamental questions: What is an innovation? What innovations are most valuable to a firm? How do innovations influence the competitive marketplace? From an entreprenuerial perspective, I address these fundamental questions.
Assessing a firm's innovation portfolio is a challenge? Even more difficult is estimating its future value? This paper applies the principles of the Bass model of diffusion of innovation \citep{Bass:1969} to the estimation of forward citations, ``class-match" dampened forward citations, and the newly introduced Patent Rank Scores. The cumulative diffusion will be modeled using a generalized logistic function known as the Richards' curve \citep{Richards:1959}. To estimate the parameters of the the model, the Newton-Raphson method is used. Over 22,000 randomly selected patents from 1976--2008 will be individually modeled, and diffusion patterns will be classified based on the parameters of the model. Valuation of innovation can be objectively assessed, and future valuation can be predicted based on each innovation's specific diffusion pattern.
Patent data is publicly available, serves as a instrument for doing patent-level and firm-level analysis for both private and public firms, and amidst the modern information age, may be the only way to secure intellectual property. Patent counts or forward-citation counts have been traditionally used to measure the innovation portfolio of a firm. Using network analysis, a variation of Google's PageRank algorithm is introduced to the patent citation network to define an objective measure for radical innovation -- ``Patent Rank". Two model types are considered: simple structure and technology ``class-match" using two temporal forms: cumulative network and five-year moving window. All utility patents from 1976--2009 will be analyzed; over 5.6 million patents and 40 million citations are evaluated to produce 332 million Patent Rank scores. Useful distributional properties are considered and these objective scores are compared to a recent subjective survey performed by PBS to assess the question: What are the most radical innovations of the modern era?
0.062736034393311|July 5, 2015 => 9:57 am