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Thursday - July 2, 2015

In my view, the Christian religion is the most important and one of the first things in which all children, under a free government ought to be instructed.. .No truth is more evident to my mind than that the Christian religion must be the basis of any government intended to secure the rights and privileges of a free people.
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1828 Noah Webster Dictionary
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acid

AC'ID, a. [L. acidus. See Edge.]

Sour, sharp or biting to the taste, having the taste of vinegar, as acid fruits or liquors.

AC'ID, n. In chimistry, acids are a class of substances, so denominated from their taste, or the sensation of sourness which they produce on the tongue. But the name is now given to several substances, which have not this characteristic in an eminent degree. The properties, by which they are distinguished, are these:

1. When taken into the mouth, they occasion the taste of sourness. They are corrosive, unless diluted with water; and some of them are caustic.

2. They change certain vegetable blue colors to red, and restore blue colors which have been turned green, or red colors which have been turned blue by an alkali.

3. Most of them unite with water in all proportions, with a condensation of volume and evolution of heat; and many of them have so strong an attraction for water, as not to appear in the solid state.

4. They have a stronger affinity for alkalies, than these have for any other substance; and in combining them, most of them produce effervescence.

5. They unite with earths, alkalies and metallic oxyds, forming interesting compounds, usually called salts.

6. With few exceptions, they are volatilized or decomposed by a moderate heat.

The old chimists divided acids into animal, vegetable, and mineral - a division now deemed inaccurate. They are also divided into oxygen acids, hydrogen acids, and acids destitute of these acidifiers. Another division is into acids with simple radicals, acids with double radicals, acids with triple radicals, acids with unknown radicals, compound acids, dubious acids, and acids destitute of oxygen.













1828 Noah Webster Dictionary

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July 02, 2015
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Innovation is a key driver of entrepreneurial activity. Innovation from an entrepreneurial perspective is conceptually defined using the complementary views of Austrian economists Kirzner and Schumpeter. Incremental innovation is defined as entrepreneurial activity from Kirzner's perspective -- exploitation of awareness of market disequilibrium which appropriates value: market-sensing, customer-linking. Radical innovation is defined as entrepreneurial activity from Schumpeter's perspective -- exploration as a market-disequilibrium "creative destruction" which creates value: market-making, customer-driving. From a firm's perspective, innovation research in marketing addresses three fundamental questions: What is an innovation? What innovations are most valuable to a firm? How do innovations influence the competitive marketplace? From an entreprenuerial perspective, I address these fundamental questions.
An application of the Patent Rank Score will be used to validate the concept of economic development and firm value. Specifically, it will be shown that the Patent Rank Score will provide improved explanatory power over previous measures of radical innovation and firm performance. \citet{Mizik:2003} described the importance of strategic emphasis and value creation/appropriation on firm performance. In the analysis, firms were grouped into low-, stable-, and high- technology groups. In the first analysis, the firms are objectively grouped based on Patent Rank Scores. Further analysis will model firm performance based on stock returns and strategic emphasis \citep{Mizik:2003}. Mediation of innovation using Patent Rank Scores will also be considered.
Patent data is publicly available, serves as a instrument for doing patent-level and firm-level analysis for both private and public firms, and amidst the modern information age, may be the only way to secure intellectual property. Patent counts or forward-citation counts have been traditionally used to measure the innovation portfolio of a firm. Using network analysis, a variation of Google's PageRank algorithm is introduced to the patent citation network to define an objective measure for radical innovation -- ``Patent Rank". Two model types are considered: simple structure and technology ``class-match" using two temporal forms: cumulative network and five-year moving window. All utility patents from 1976--2009 will be analyzed; over 5.6 million patents and 40 million citations are evaluated to produce 332 million Patent Rank scores. Useful distributional properties are considered and these objective scores are compared to a recent subjective survey performed by PBS to assess the question: What are the most radical innovations of the modern era?
0.13371896743774|July 2, 2015 => 6:08 pm