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In my view, the Christian religion is the most important and one of the first things in which all children, under a free government ought to be instructed... No truth is more evident to my mind than that the Christian religion must be the basis of any government intended to secure the rights and privileges of a free people.
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1828 Noah Webster Dictionary
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1828.mshaffer.comSearch word: liberty

1828 edition of Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language

1828 Noah Webster Dictionary
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liberty

LIB'ERTY, n. [L. libertas, from liber, free.]

1. Freedom from restraint, in a general sense, and applicable to the body, or to the will or mind. The body is at liberty, when not confined; the will or mind is at liberty, when not checked or controlled. A man enjoys liberty, when no physical force operates to restrain his actions or volitions.

2. Natural liberty, consists in the power of acting as one thinks fit, without any restraint or control, except from the laws of nature. It is a state of exemption from the control of others, and from positive laws and the institutions of social life. This liberty is abridged by the establishment of government.

3. Civil liberty, is the liberty of men in a state of society, or natural liberty, so far only abridged and restrained, as is necessary and expedient for the safety and interest of the society, state or nation. A restraint of natural liberty, not necessary or expedient for the public, is tyranny or oppression. civil liberty is an exemption from the arbitrary will of others, which exemption is secured by established laws, which restrain every man from injuring or controlling another. Hence the restraints of law are essential to civil liberty.

The liberty of one depends not so much on the removal of all restraint from him, as on the due restraint upon the liberty of others.

In this sentence, the latter word liberty denotes natural liberty.

4. Political liberty, is sometimes used as synonymous with civil liberty. But it more properly designates the liberty of a nation, the freedom of a nation or state from all unjust abridgment of its rights and independence by another nation. Hence we often speak of the political liberties of Europe, or the nations of Europe.

5. Religious liberty, is the free right of adopting and enjoying opinions on religious subjects, and of worshiping the Supreme Being according to the dictates of conscience, without external control.

6. Liberty, in metaphysics, as opposed to necessity, is the power of an agent to do or forbear any particular action, according to the determination or thought of the mind, by which either is preferred to the other.

Freedom of the will; exemption from compulsion or restraint in willing or volition.

7. Privilege; exemption; immunity enjoyed by prescription or by grant; with a plural. Thus we speak of the liberties of the commercial cities of Europe.

8. Leave; permission granted. The witness obtained liberty to leave the court.

9. A space in which one is permitted to pass without restraint, and beyond which he may not lawfully pass; with a plural; as the liberties of a prison.

10. Freedom of action or speech beyond the ordinary bounds of civility or decorum. Females should repel all improper liberties.

To take the liberty to do or say any thing, to use freedom not specially granted.

To set at liberty, to deliver from confinement; to release from restraint.

To be at liberty, to be free from restraint.

Liberty of the press, is freedom from any restriction on the power to publish books; the free power of publishing what one pleases, subject only to punishment for abusing the privilege, or publishing what is mischievous to the public or injurious to individuals.

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DISPOSSESSING, ppr. Depriving of possession; disseizing.

About 1828

First dictionary of the American Language!

Noah Webster, the Father of American Christian education, wrote the first American dictionary and established a system of rules to govern spelling, grammar, and reading. This master linguist understood the power of words, their definitions, and the need for precise word usage in communication to maintain independence. Webster used the Bible as the foundation for his definitions.

This standard reference tool will greatly assist students of all ages in their studies.

No other dictionary compares with the Webster's 1828 dictionary. The English language has changed again and again and in many instances has become corrupt. The American Dictionary of the English Language is based upon God's written word, for Noah Webster used the Bible as the foundation for his definitions. This standard reference tool will greatly assist students of all ages in their studies. From American History to literature, from science to the Word of God, this dictionary is a necessity. For homeschoolers as well as avid Bible students it is easy, fast, and sophisticated.


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monte

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Monte J. Shaffer Monte J. Shaffer is a fourth-year Ph.D. student and job market candidate (2011) in the Department of Marketing at Washington State University. Monte is currently working on his marketing dissertation in Entrepreneurial Innovations. Prior to joining Washington State University, Monte received a Bachelor in Mathematics / MBA in Marketing from Brigham Young University (BYU) in Provo, UT.
Entrepreneurial Innovation My interests in marketing strategy are related to entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial startups, and their perceptions. Specifically, how do they make sense of the information they perceive in the market place and how do these perceptions influence their marketing strategies for their entrepreneurial ideas.
Monte from Montana "Monte from Montana" was born and raised near Glacier National Park. He is a strong, sober mind that likes to solve problems in order to help people. Following in his father's footsteps, he began teaching high school mathematics (BYU: mathematics with minors in Physics and Spanish). The excitement of the dot-com era led Monte to Monterey California where he became a Senior Software Engineer doing web-application development for an Internet Company. Following the bubble-burst, he returned to BYU (MBA: Marketing Research). Monte is concurrently working toward his Ph.D. in Marketing and a M.S. in Statistics at WSU in Pullman, Washington. Generally, he likes to identify innovative statistical techniques that can help solve marketing problems. Specifically, his interests are in Entrepreneurial Innovation, U.S. Patent Data, and Internet Consumer Behavior. Outside of Marketing, Monte enjoys his family, a good game of basketball, golf, and chess.
Patent Data There has been a call for 'new' patent data (Kortum - see Tellis et al. 2009). I believe that I can contribute to the field of marketing strategy by improving the data available, and describing its potential uses. The new data source allows for large and rich information regarding patents that can be used in many types of strategic analyses. The most recent run of these data consisted of 73 IT firms in the S&P 500. Collecting data from January 1996 to June 2009 provides over 192,000 patents with information about forward/backward citations, classification matches, and more. The programming process to run this list took nearly 36 hours as it had to analyze over 3 million patents to create the informative dataset. This is my definition of new data, and the process is continuous and ongoing: (1) All Patent Data has been harvest (8 million patents); (2) Parsed Data is currently being stored in database format; (3) Firm boundary issues [IBM, Internation Business Machines, mergers, misspellings, etc.]; (4) with an intent to do new modeling research on the patent data: (a) Diffusion of Radical Innovations (patents); (b) Patent Rank (e.g., Page Rank applied to patent network of citations) - structural and weighted ranks (e.g., classification matching); (c) EIQ; (d) Race to the Patent Office; (e) Patent Pending
Revisiting Value Creation and Value Appropriation: An Entreprenurial Perspective An application of the Patent Rank Score will be used to validate the concept of economic development and firm value. Specifically, it will be shown that the Patent Rank Score will provide improved explanatory power over previous measures of radical innovation and firm performance. \citet{Mizik:2003} described the importance of strategic emphasis and value creation/appropriation on firm performance. In the analysis, firms were grouped into low-, stable-, and high- technology groups. In the first analysis, the firms are objectively grouped based on Patent Rank Scores. Further analysis will model firm performance based on stock returns and strategic emphasis \citep{Mizik:2003}. Mediation of innovation using Patent Rank Scores will also be considered.

Learn more about U.S. patents:

Patent # 7,654,321 ()
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