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Thursday - January 17, 2019

In my view, the Christian religion is the most important and one of the first things in which all children, under a free government ought to be instructed... No truth is more evident to my mind than that the Christian religion must be the basis of any government intended to secure the rights and privileges of a free people.
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1828 Noah Webster Dictionary
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1828.mshaffer.comWord [cardinal]

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cardinal

CARDINAL, a. Chief, principal, preeminent, or fundamental; as the cardinal virtues, which Pagans supposed to be justice, prudence, temperance and fortitude.

CARDINAL, n.

1. An ecclesiastical prince in the Romish church, who has a voice in the conclave at the election of a Pope, who is taken from their number. The cardinals are divided into three classes or orders, containing six bishops, fifty priests, and fourteen deacons, making seventy. These constitute the sacred college, and compose the Popes council. Originally they were subordinate in rank to bishops; but they have now the precedence. The dress of a cardinal is a red soutaine or cassock, a rocket, a short purple mantle and a red hat.

2. A womans cloke.

Cardinal-flower, a plant of the genus Lobelia, of many species. They are fibrous-rooted perennials, rising from two to five or six feet high, with erect stalks, ornamented with oblong, oval, spear-shaped simple leaves, and spikes of beautiful monopetalous flowers of scarlet, blue and violet colors. The natives of this country use a decoction of one species, the siphilitica, as a remedy in the venereal disease.

Cardinal numbers, are the numbers, one, two, three, &c., in distinction from first, second, third, &c., which are called ordinal numbers.

Cardinal points, in cosmography, are the four intersections of the horizon with the meridian, and the prime vertical circle, or North and South, East and West. In astrology, the cardinal points are the rising and setting of the sun, the zenith and nadir.

Cardinal signs, in astronomy, are Aries, Libra, Cancer and Capricorn.

Cardinal winds, are those which blow from the cardinal points.



Evolution (or devolution) of this word [cardinal]

1828 Webster1844 Webster1913 Webster

CARDINAL, a. Chief, principal, preeminent, or fundamental; as the cardinal virtues, which Pagans supposed to be justice, prudence, temperance and fortitude.

CARDINAL, n.

1. An ecclesiastical prince in the Romish church, who has a voice in the conclave at the election of a Pope, who is taken from their number. The cardinals are divided into three classes or orders, containing six bishops, fifty priests, and fourteen deacons, making seventy. These constitute the sacred college, and compose the Popes council. Originally they were subordinate in rank to bishops; but they have now the precedence. The dress of a cardinal is a red soutaine or cassock, a rocket, a short purple mantle and a red hat.

2. A womans cloke.

Cardinal-flower, a plant of the genus Lobelia, of many species. They are fibrous-rooted perennials, rising from two to five or six feet high, with erect stalks, ornamented with oblong, oval, spear-shaped simple leaves, and spikes of beautiful monopetalous flowers of scarlet, blue and violet colors. The natives of this country use a decoction of one species, the siphilitica, as a remedy in the venereal disease.

Cardinal numbers, are the numbers, one, two, three, &c., in distinction from first, second, third, &c., which are called ordinal numbers.

Cardinal points, in cosmography, are the four intersections of the horizon with the meridian, and the prime vertical circle, or North and South, East and West. In astrology, the cardinal points are the rising and setting of the sun, the zenith and nadir.

Cardinal signs, in astronomy, are Aries, Libra, Cancer and Capricorn.

Cardinal winds, are those which blow from the cardinal points.

CARD'I-NAL, a. [L. cardinalis, said to be from cardo, a hinge.]

Chief, principal, pre-eminent, or fundamental; as, the cardinal virtues, which Pagans supposed to be Justice, Prudence, Temperance, and Fortitude.


CARD'I-NAL, n.

  1. An ecclesiastical prince in the Romish Church, who has a voice in the conclave at the election of a Pope, who is taken from their number. The cardinals are divided into three classes or orders, containing six bishops, fifty priests, and fourteen deacons, making seventy. These constitute the sacred college, and compose the Pope's council. Originally they were subordinate in rank to bishops; but they have now the precedence. The dress of a cardinal is a red soutaine or cassoc, a rocket, a short purple mantle, and a red hat. – Encyc. Spelman.
  2. A woman's cloke. Cardinal-flower, a plant of the, genus Lobelia, of many species. They are fibrous-rooted perennials, rising from two to five or six feet high, with erect stalks, ornamented with oblong, oval, spear-shaped simple leaves, and spikes of beautiful monopetalous flowers, of scarlet, blue, and violet colors. The natives of this country use a decoction of one species, the syphilitica, as a remedy in the venereal disease. – Encyc. Cardinal numbers, are the numbers one, two, three, &c. in distinction from first, second, third, &c., which are called ordinal numbers. Cardinal points, in cosmography, are the four intersections of the horizon with the meridian, and the prime vertical circle, or North and South, East and West. In astrology, the cardinal points are the rising and setting of the sun, the Zenith and Nadir. Cardinal signs, in astronomy, are Aries, Libra, Cancer, and Capricorn. Cardinal virtues. Prudence, Justice, Temperance, and Fortitude. Cardinal winds, are those which blow from the cardinal points.

Car"di*nal
  1. Of fundamental importance; preëminent; superior; chief; principal.

    The cardinal intersections of the zodiac.
    Sir T. Browne.

    Impudence is now a cardinal virtue.
    Drayton.

    But cardinal sins, and hollow hearts, I fear ye.
    Shak.

    Cardinal numbers, the numbers one, two, three, etc., in distinction from first, second, third, etc., which are called ordinal numbers. -- Cardinal points (a) (Geol.) The four principal points of the compass, or intersections of the horizon with the meridian and the prime vertical circle, north, south east, and west. (b) (Astrol.) The rising and setting of the sun, the zenith and nadir. -- Cardinal signs (Astron.) Aries, Libra, Cancer, and Capricorn. -- Cardinal teeth (Zoöl.), the central teeth of bivalve shell. See Bivalve. -- Cardinal veins (Anat.), the veins in vertebrate embryos, which run each side of the vertebral column and returm the blood to the heart. They remain through life in some fishes. -- Cardinal virtues, preëminent virtues; among the ancients, prudence, justice, temperance, and fortitude. -- Cardinal winds, winds which blow from the cardinal points due north, south, east, or west.

  2. One of the ecclesiastical princes who constitute the pope's council, or the sacred college.

    The clerics of the supreme Chair are called Cardinals, as undoubtedly adhering more nearly to the hinge by which all things are moved.
    Pope Leo IX.

    * The cardinals are appointed by the pope. Since the time of Sixtus V., their number can never exceed seventy (six of episcopal rank, fifty priests, fourteen deacons), and the number of cardinal priests and deacons is seldom full. When the papel chair is vacant a pope is elected by the college of cardinals from among themselves. The cardinals take precedence of all dignitaries except the pope. The principal parts of a cardinal's costume are a red cassock, a rochet, a short purple mantle, and a red hat with a small crown and broad brim, with cords and tessels of a special pattern hanging from it.

  3. A woman's short cloak with a hood.

    Where's your cardinal! Make haste.
    Lloyd.

  4. Mulled red wine.

    Hotten.

    Cardinal bird, or Cardinal grosbeak (Zoöl.), an American song bird (Cardinalis cardinalis, or C. Virginianus), of the family Fringillidæ, or finches having a bright red plumage, and a high, pointed crest on its head. The males have loud and musical notes resembling those of a fife. Other related species are also called cardinal birds. -- Cardinal flower (Bot.), an herbaceous plant (Lobelia cardinalis) bearing brilliant red flowers of much beauty. -- Cardinal red, a color like that of a cardinal's cassock, hat, etc.; a bright red, darker than scarlet, and between scarlet and crimson.

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Cardinal

CARDINAL, adjective Chief, principal, preeminent, or fundamental; as the cardinal virtues, which Pagans supposed to be justice, prudence, temperance and fortitude.

CARDINAL, noun

1. An ecclesiastical prince in the Romish church, who has a voice in the conclave at the election of a Pope, who is taken from their number. The cardinals are divided into three classes or orders, containing six bishops, fifty priests, and fourteen deacons, making seventy. These constitute the sacred college, and compose the Popes council. Originally they were subordinate in rank to bishops; but they have now the precedence. The dress of a cardinal is a red soutaine or cassock, a rocket, a short purple mantle and a red hat.

2. A womans cloke.

CARDINAL-flower, a plant of the genus Lobelia, of many species. They are fibrous-rooted perennials, rising from two to five or six feet high, with erect stalks, ornamented with oblong, oval, spear-shaped simple leaves, and spikes of beautiful monopetalous flowers of scarlet, blue and violet colors. The natives of this country use a decoction of one species, the siphilitica, as a remedy in the venereal disease.

CARDINAL numbers, are the numbers, one, two, three, etc., in distinction from first, second, third, etc., which are called ordinal numbers.

CARDINAL points, in cosmography, are the four intersections of the horizon with the meridian, and the prime vertical circle, or North and South, East and West. In astrology, the cardinal points are the rising and setting of the sun, the zenith and nadir.

CARDINAL signs, in astronomy, are Aries, Libra, Cancer and Capricorn.

CARDINAL winds, are those which blow from the cardinal points.

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Word of the Day

importance

IMPORT'ANCE, n.

1. Weight; consequence; a bearing on some interest; that quality of any thing by which it may affect a measure, interest or result. The education of youth is of great importance to a free government. A religious education is of infinite importance to every human being.

2. Weight or consequence in the scale of being.

Thy own importance know.

Nor bound thy narrow views to things below.

3. Weight or consequence in self-estimation.

He believes himself a man of importance.

4. Thing implied; matter; subject; importunity. [In these senses, obsolete.]

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Noah's 1828 Dictionary

First dictionary of the American Language!

Noah Webster, the Father of American Christian education, wrote the first American dictionary and established a system of rules to govern spelling, grammar, and reading. This master linguist understood the power of words, their definitions, and the need for precise word usage in communication to maintain independence. Webster used the Bible as the foundation for his definitions.

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1828 Noah Webster Dictionary

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