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Saturday - December 15, 2018

In my view, the Christian religion is the most important and one of the first things in which all children, under a free government ought to be instructed... No truth is more evident to my mind than that the Christian religion must be the basis of any government intended to secure the rights and privileges of a free people.
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1828 Noah Webster Dictionary
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that

THAT, an adjective, pronoun or substitute.

1. That is a word used as a definitive adjective, pointing to a certain person or thing before mentioned, or supposed to be understood. "Here is that book we have been seeking this hour." "Here goes that man we were talking of."

It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that city. Matt.10.

2. That is used definitively, to designate a specific thing or person emphatically.

The woman was made whole from that hour. Matt.9.

In these cases, that is an adjective. In the two first examples,the may be substituted for it. "Here is the book we have been seeking." "Here goes the man we were talking of." But in other cases, the cannot supply its place, and that may be considered as more emphatically definite than the.

3. That is used as the representative of a noun, either a person or a thing. In this use, it is often a pronoun and a relative. When it refers to persons, it is equivalent to who, and when it refers to a thing, it is equivalent to which. In this use, it represents either the singular number or the plural.

He that reproveth a scorner, getteth to himself shame. Prov.9.

They that hate me without a cause, are more than the hairs of my head. Ps.63.

A judgment that is equal and impartial, must incline to the greater probabilities.

They shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend. Matt.13.

4. That is also the representative of a sentence or part of a sentence, and often of a series of sentences. In this case, that is not strictly a pronoun, a word standing for a noun; but is, so to speak, a pro-sentence, the substitute for a sentence, to save the repetition of it.

And when Moses heard that, he was content. Lev.10.

That here stands for the whole of what Aaron had said, or the whole of the preceding verse.

I will know your business,that I will.

Ye defraud, and that your brethren. 1 Cor.6.

That sometimes in this use, precedes the sentence or clause to which it refers.

That be far from thee, to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked. Gen.18.

That here represents the clause in italics.

5. That sometimes is the substitute for an adjective. You allege that the man is innocent; that he is not.

6. That, in the following use, has been called a conjunction. "I heard that the Greeks had defeated the Turks." But in this case, that has the same character as in No.4. It is the representative of the part of the sentence which follows, as may be seen by inverting the order of the clauses. "The Greeks had defeated the Turks; I heard that." "It is not that I love you less." That here refers to the latter clause of the sentence, as a kind of demonstrative.

7. That was formerly used for that which, like what.

We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen. John 3. [This use is no longer held legitimate.]

8. That is used in opposition to this, or by way of distinction.

9. When this and that refer to foregoing words, this, like the Latin hie, and French ceci, refers to the latter, and that to the former. It is the same with these and those.

Self-love and reason to one end aspire,

Pain their aversion, pleasure their desire,

But greedy that, its object would devour,

This taste the honey, and not wound the flow'r.

10. That sometimes introduces an explanation of something going before. "Religion consists in living up to those principles; that is, in acting in conformity to them." Here that refers to the whole first clause of the sentence.

11. "Things are preached, not in that they are taught, but in that they are published." Here that refers to the words which follow it.

So when that begins a sentence, "That we may fully understand the subject, let us consider the following propositions." That denotes purpose, or rather introduces the clause expressing purposes, as will appear by restoring the sentence to its natural order. "Let us consider the following propositions, that, [for the purpose expressed in the following clause,] we may fully understand the subject." "Attend that you may receive instruction;" that referring to the last member.

In that, a phrase denoting consequence, cause or reason; that referring to the following sentence.




Evolution (or devolution) of this word [that]

1828 Webster1844 Webster1913 Webster

THAT, an adjective, pronoun or substitute.

1. That is a word used as a definitive adjective, pointing to a certain person or thing before mentioned, or supposed to be understood. "Here is that book we have been seeking this hour." "Here goes that man we were talking of."

It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that city. Matt.10.

2. That is used definitively, to designate a specific thing or person emphatically.

The woman was made whole from that hour. Matt.9.

In these cases, that is an adjective. In the two first examples,the may be substituted for it. "Here is the book we have been seeking." "Here goes the man we were talking of." But in other cases, the cannot supply its place, and that may be considered as more emphatically definite than the.

3. That is used as the representative of a noun, either a person or a thing. In this use, it is often a pronoun and a relative. When it refers to persons, it is equivalent to who, and when it refers to a thing, it is equivalent to which. In this use, it represents either the singular number or the plural.

He that reproveth a scorner, getteth to himself shame. Prov.9.

They that hate me without a cause, are more than the hairs of my head. Ps.63.

A judgment that is equal and impartial, must incline to the greater probabilities.

They shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend. Matt.13.

4. That is also the representative of a sentence or part of a sentence, and often of a series of sentences. In this case, that is not strictly a pronoun, a word standing for a noun; but is, so to speak, a pro-sentence, the substitute for a sentence, to save the repetition of it.

And when Moses heard that, he was content. Lev.10.

That here stands for the whole of what Aaron had said, or the whole of the preceding verse.

I will know your business,that I will.

Ye defraud, and that your brethren. 1 Cor.6.

That sometimes in this use, precedes the sentence or clause to which it refers.

That be far from thee, to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked. Gen.18.

That here represents the clause in italics.

5. That sometimes is the substitute for an adjective. You allege that the man is innocent; that he is not.

6. That, in the following use, has been called a conjunction. "I heard that the Greeks had defeated the Turks." But in this case, that has the same character as in No.4. It is the representative of the part of the sentence which follows, as may be seen by inverting the order of the clauses. "The Greeks had defeated the Turks; I heard that." "It is not that I love you less." That here refers to the latter clause of the sentence, as a kind of demonstrative.

7. That was formerly used for that which, like what.

We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen. John 3. [This use is no longer held legitimate.]

8. That is used in opposition to this, or by way of distinction.

9. When this and that refer to foregoing words, this, like the Latin hie, and French ceci, refers to the latter, and that to the former. It is the same with these and those.

Self-love and reason to one end aspire,

Pain their aversion, pleasure their desire,

But greedy that, its object would devour,

This taste the honey, and not wound the flow'r.

10. That sometimes introduces an explanation of something going before. "Religion consists in living up to those principles; that is, in acting in conformity to them." Here that refers to the whole first clause of the sentence.

11. "Things are preached, not in that they are taught, but in that they are published." Here that refers to the words which follow it.

So when that begins a sentence, "That we may fully understand the subject, let us consider the following propositions." That denotes purpose, or rather introduces the clause expressing purposes, as will appear by restoring the sentence to its natural order. "Let us consider the following propositions, that, [for the purpose expressed in the following clause,] we may fully understand the subject." "Attend that you may receive instruction;" that referring to the last member.

In that, a phrase denoting consequence, cause or reason; that referring to the following sentence.


THAT, a. [or pron. an adjective, pronoun or substitute. Sax. thæt, that; Goth. thata; D. dat; G. das; Dan. det; Sw. det. Qu. Gr. ταυτος. This word is called in Saxon and German, an article, for it sometimes signifies the. It is called also in Saxon a pronoun, equivalent to id, istud, in Latin. In Swedish and Danish it is called a pronoun of the neuter gender. But these distinctions are groundless and of no use. It is probably from the sense of setting.]

  1. That is a word used as a definitive adjective, pointing to a certain person or thing before mentioned, or supposed to be understood. “Here is that book we have been seeking, this hour.” “Here goes that man we were talking of.” It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that city. Matth. x.
  2. That is used definitively, to designate a specific thing or person emphatically. The woman was made whole from that hour. Matth. ix. In these cases, that is an adjective. In the two first examples, the may be substituted for it. “Here is the book we have been seeking.” “Here goes the man we were talking of.” But in other cases, the can not supply its place, and that may be considered as more emphatically definitive than the.
  3. That is used as the representative of a noun, either a person or a thing. In this use it is often a pronoun and a relative. When it refers to persons, it is equivalent to who, and when it refers to a thing, it is equivalent to which. In this use, it represents either the singular number or the plural. He that reproveth a scorner, getteth to himself shame. Prov. ix. They that hate me without a cause, are more than the hairs of my head. Ps. lxiii. A judgment that is equal and impartial, must incline to the greater probabilities. Wilkins. They shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend. Matth. xiii.
  4. That is also the representative of a sentence or part of a sentence, and often of a series of sentences. In this case, that is not strictly a pronoun, a word standing for a noun; but is, so to speak, a pro-sentence, the substitute for a sentence, to save the repetition of it. And when Moses heard that, he was content. Lev. x. That here stands for the whole of what Aaron had said, or the whole of the preceding verse. I will know your business, that I will. Shak. Ye defraud, and that your brethren. 1 Cor. vi. That sometimes in this use, precedes the sentence or clause to which it refers. That be far from thee, to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked. Gen. xviii. That here represents the clause in italics.
  5. That sometimes is the substitute for an adjective. You alledge that the man is innocent; that he is not.
  6. That, in the following use, has been called a conjunction. “I heard that the Greeks had defeated the Turks.” But in this case, that has the same character as in No. 4. It is the representative of the part of the sentence which follows, as may be seen by inverting the order of the clauses. “The Greeks had defeated the Turks; I heard that.” “It is not that I love you less.” That here refers to the latter clause of the sentence, as a kind of demonstrative.
  7. That was formerly used for that which, like what. We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen. John iii. [This use is no longer held legitimate.]
  8. That is used in opposition to this, or by way of distinction. If the Lord will, we shall live, and do this or that. James iv.
  9. When this and that refer to foregoing words, this, like the Latin hic, and French ceci, refers to the latter, and that to the former. It is the same with these and those. Self-lore and reason to one end aspire, / Pain their aversion, pleasure their desire; / But greedy that, its object would devour, / This taste the honey, and not wound the flow'r. Pope.
  10. That sometimes introduces an explanation of something going before. “Religion consists in living up to those principles; that is, in acting in conformity to them.” Here that refers to the whole first clause of the sentence.
  11. “Things are preached, not in that they are taught, but in that they are published.” Here that refers to the words which follow it. So when that begins a sentence. “That we may fully understand the subject, let us consider the following propositions.” That denotes purpose, or rather introduces the clause expressing purpose, as will appear by restoring the sentence to its natural order. “Let us consider the following propositions, that, [for the purpose expressed in the following clause,] we may fully understand the subject.” “Attend that you may receive instruction.” Here also that expresses purpose elliptically; “Attend for the purpose that, you may receive instruction;” that referring to the last number. This elliptical use of that is very frequent; the preposition for being understood. “A man travels that he may regain his health.” He travels for that purpose, he may regain his health. The French often retains the preposition in such cases, pour que. “Do all things without murmurings and disputings, that ye may be blameless and harmless.” Phil. ii, 14. Do all things without murmurings, for that purpose; to that effect, ye may be blameless. In that, a phrase denoting consequence, cause or reason; that referring to the following sentence.

That
  1. As a demonstrative pronoun (pl. Those), that usually points out, or refers to, a person or thing previously mentioned, or supposed to be understood. That, as a demonstrative, may precede the noun to which it refers; as, that which he has said is true; those in the basket are good apples.

    The early fame of Gratian was equal to that of the most celebrated princes. Gibbon.

    * That may refer to an entire sentence or paragraph, and not merely to a word. It usually follows, but sometimes precedes, the sentence referred to.

    That be far from thee, to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked. Gen. xviii. 25.

    And when Moses heard that, he was content. Lev. x. 20.

    I will know your business, Harry, that I will. Shak.

    * That is often used in opposition to this, or by way of distinction, and in such cases this, like the Latin hic and French ceci, generally refers to that which is nearer, and that, like Latin ille and French cela, to that which is more remote. When they refer to foreign words or phrases, this generally refers to the latter, and that to the former.

    Two principles in human nature reign;
    Self-love, to urge, and Reason, to restrain;
    Nor this a good, nor that a bad we call.
    Pope.

    If the Lord will, we shall live, and do this or that. James iv. 16.

  2. As an adjective, that has the same demonstrative force as the pronoun, but is followed by a noun.

    It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that city. Matt. x. 15.

    The woman was made whole from that hour. Matt. ix. 22.

    * That was formerly sometimes used with the force of the article the, especially in the phrases that one, that other, which were subsequently corrupted into th'tone, th'tother (now written t'other).

    Upon a day out riden knightes two . . .
    That one of them came home, that other not.
    Chaucer.

  3. As a relative pronoun, that is equivalent to who or which, serving to point out, and make definite, a person or thing spoken of, or alluded to, before, and may be either singular or plural.

    He that reproveth a scorner getteth to himself shame. Prov. ix. 7.

    A judgment that is equal and impartial must incline to the greater probabilities. Bp. Wilkins.

    * If the relative clause simply conveys an additional idea, and is not properly explanatory or restrictive, who or which (rarely that) is employed; as, the king that (or who) rules well is generally popular; Victoria, who (not that) rules well, enjoys the confidence of her subjects. Ambiguity may in some cases be avoided in the use of that (which is restrictive) instead of who or which, likely to be understood in a coördinating sense. Bain.

    That was formerly used for that which, as what is now; but such use is now archaic.

    We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen. John iii. 11.

    That I have done it is thyself to wite [blame]. Chaucer.

    That, as a relative pronoun, cannot be governed by a preposition preceding it, but may be governed by one at the end of the sentence which it commences.

    The ship that somebody was sailing in. Sir W. Scott.

    In Old English, that was often used with the demonstratives he, his, him, etc., and the two together had the force of a relative pronoun; thus, that he = who; that his = whose; that him = whom.

    I saw to-day a corpse yborn to church
    That now on Monday last I saw him wirche [work].
    Chaucer.

    Formerly, that was used, where we now commonly use which, as a relative pronoun with the demonstrative pronoun that as its antecedent.

    That that dieth, let it die; and that that is to cut off, let it be cut off. Zech. xi. 9.

  4. As a conjunction, that retains much of its force as a demonstrative pronoun.

    It is used, specifically: --

    (a)

  5. As adverb: To such a degree; so; as, he was that frightened he could say nothing.

    [Archaic or in illiteral use.]

    All that, everything of that kind; all that sort.

    With singing, laughing, ogling, and all that. Pope.

    The rank is but the guinea's stamp,
    The man's the gowd [gold] for a'that.
    Burns.

    -- For that. See under For, prep. -- In that. See under In, prep.

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That

THAT, an adjective, pronoun or substitute.

1. that is a word used as a definitive adjective, pointing to a certain person or thing before mentioned, or supposed to be understood. 'Here is that book we have been seeking this hour.' 'Here goes that man we were talking of.'

It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that city. Matthew 10:14.

2. that is used definitively, to designate a specific thing or person emphatically.

The woman was made whole from that hour. Matthew 9:6.

In these cases, that is an adjective. In the two first examples, the may be substituted for it. 'Here is the book we have been seeking.' 'Here goes the man we were talking of.' But in other cases, the cannot supply its place, and that may be considered as more emphatically definite than the.

3. that is used as the representative of a noun, either a person or a thing. In this use, it is often a pronoun and a relative. When it refers to persons, it is equivalent to who, and when it refers to a thing, it is equivalent to which. In this use, it represents either the singular number or the plural.

He that reproveth a scorner, getteth to himself shame. Proverbs 9:4.

They that hate me without a cause, are more than the hairs of my head. Psalms 63:9.

A judgment that is equal and impartial, must incline to the greater probabilities.

They shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend. Mat 13.

4. that is also the representative of a sentence or part of a sentence, and often of a series of sentences. In this case, that is not strictly a pronoun, a word standing for a noun; but is, so to speak, a pro-sentence, the substitute for a sentence, to save the repetition of it.

And when Moses heard that he was content. Leviticus 10:3.

THAT here stands for the whole of what Aaron had said, or the whole of the preceding verse.

I will know your business, that I will.

Ye defraud, and that your brethren. 1 Corinthians 6:2.

THAT sometimes in this use, precedes the sentence or clause to which it refers.

THAT be far from thee, to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked. Genesis 18:5.

THAT here represents the clause in italics.

5. that sometimes is the substitute for an adjective. You allege that the man is innocent; that he is not.

6. that in the following use, has been called a conjunction. 'I heard that the Greeks had defeated the Turks.' But in this case, that has the same character as in No.4. It is the representative of the part of the sentence which follows, as may be seen by inverting the order of the clauses. 'The Greeks had defeated the Turks; I heard that ' 'It is not that I love you less.' that here refers to the latter clause of the sentence, as a kind of demonstrative.

7. that was formerly used for that which, like what.

We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen. John 3:2. [This use is no longer held legitimate.]

8. that is used in opposition to this, or by way of distinction.

9. When this and that refer to foregoing words, this, like the Latin hie, and French ceci, refers to the latter, and that to the former. It is the same with these and those.

Self-love and reason to one end aspire,

Pain their aversion, pleasure their desire,

But greedy that its object would devour,

This taste the honey, and not wound the flow'r.

10. that sometimes introduces an explanation of something going before. 'Religion consists in living up to those principles; that is, in acting in conformity to them.' Here that refers to the whole first clause of the sentence.

11. 'Things are preached, not in that they are taught, but in that they are published.' Here that refers to the words which follow it.

So when that begins a sentence, 'That we may fully understand the subject, let us consider the following propositions.' that denotes purpose, or rather introduces the clause expressing purposes, as will appear by restoring the sentence to its natural order. 'Let us consider the following propositions, that [for the purpose expressed in the following clause, ] we may fully understand the subject.' 'Attend that you may receive instruction; ' that referring to the last member.

In that a phrase denoting consequence, cause or reason; that referring to the following sentence.

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Word of the Day

importance

IMPORT'ANCE, n.

1. Weight; consequence; a bearing on some interest; that quality of any thing by which it may affect a measure, interest or result. The education of youth is of great importance to a free government. A religious education is of infinite importance to every human being.

2. Weight or consequence in the scale of being.

Thy own importance know.

Nor bound thy narrow views to things below.

3. Weight or consequence in self-estimation.

He believes himself a man of importance.

4. Thing implied; matter; subject; importunity. [In these senses, obsolete.]

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clamped

CLAMPED, pp. United or strengthened with a clamp.

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