Saturday - July 11, 2020

In my view, the Christian religion is the most important and one of the first things in which all children, under a free government ought to be instructed... No truth is more evident to my mind than that the Christian religion must be the basis of any government intended to secure the rights and privileges of a free people.
- Preface

1828 Noah Webster Dictionary
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1828.mshaffer.comWord [pavonine]

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PAV'ONINE, a. [L. pavoninus, from pavo, a peacock.]

Resembling the tail of a peacock; iridescent.

Evolution (or devolution) of this word [pavonine]

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PAV'ONINE, a. [L. pavoninus, from pavo, a peacock.]

Resembling the tail of a peacock; iridescent.

PAV'O-NINE, a. [L. pavoninus, from pavo, a peacock.]

Resembling the tail of a peacock; iridescent. – Cleaveland.

  1. Like, or pertaining to, the genus Pavo.
  2. Characteristic of a peacock; resembling the tail of a peacock, as in colors; iridescent.

    P. Cleaveland.
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PAV'ONINE, adjective [Latin pavoninus, from pavo, a peacock.]

Resembling the tail of a peacock; iridescent.

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1. Weight; consequence; a bearing on some interest; that quality of any thing by which it may affect a measure, interest or result. The education of youth is of great importance to a free government. A religious education is of infinite importance to every human being.

2. Weight or consequence in the scale of being.

Thy own importance know.

Nor bound thy narrow views to things below.

3. Weight or consequence in self-estimation.

He believes himself a man of importance.

4. Thing implied; matter; subject; importunity. [In these senses, obsolete.]

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STAND, v.i. pret. and pp. stood. [This verb, if from the root of G., is a derivative from the noun, which is formed from the participle of the original verb. In this case, the noun should properly precede the verb. It may be here remarked that if stan is the radical word, stand and L. Sto cannot be from the same stock. But stand in the pret. is stood, and sto forms steti. This induces a suspicion that stan is not the root of stand, but that n is casual. I am inclined however to believe these words to be from different roots. The Russ. Stoyu, to stand, is the L. sto, but it signifies also to be, to exist, being the substantive verb.]

1. To be upon the feet, as an animal; not to sit, kneel or lie.

The absolution to be pronounced by the priest alone, standing.

And the king turned his face about and blessed all the congregation of Israel, and all the congregation of Israel stood. 1 Kings 8.

2. To be erect, supported by the roots, as a tree or other plant. Notwithstanding the violence of the wind, the tree yet stands.

3. To be on its foundation; not to be overthrown or demolished; as, an old castle is yet standing.

4. To be placed or situated; to have a certain position or location. Paris stands on the Seine. London stands on the Thames.

5. To remain upright, in a moral sense; not to fall.

To stand or fall, free in thy own arbitrement it lies.

6. To become erect.

Mute and amazd, my hair with horror stood.

7. To stop; to halt; not to proceed.

I charge thee, stand, and tell thy name.

8. To stop; to be at a stationary point.

Say, at what part of nature will they stand?

9. To be in a state of fixedness; hence, to continue; to endure. Our constitution has stood nearly forty years. It is hoped it will stand for ages.

Commonwealth by virtue ever stood.

10. To be fixed or steady; not to vacillate. His mind stands unmoved.

11. To be in or to maintain a posture of resistance or defense. Approach with charged bayonets; the enemy will not stand.

The king granted the Jews to stand for their life. Esther 8.

12. To be placed with regard to order or rank. Note the letter that stands first in order. Gen. Washington stood highest in public estimation. Christian charity stands first in the rank of gracious affections.

13. To be in particular state; to be, emphatically expressed, that is, to be fixed or set; the primary sense of the substantive verb. How does the value of wheat stand? God stands in no need of our services, but we always stand in need of his aid and his mercy.

Accomplish what your signs foreshow; I stand resignd.

14. To continue unchanged or valid; not to fail or become void.

No condition of our peace can stand.

My mercy will I keep for him, and my covenant shall stand fast with him. Psalm 89.

15. To consist; to have its being and essence.

Sacrifices--which stood only in meats and drinks. Hebrews 9.

16. To have a place.

This excellent man, who stood not on the advantage-ground before, provoked men of all qualities.

17. To be in any state. Let us see how our matters stand.

As things now stand with us--

18. To be in particular respect or relation; as, to stand godfather to one. We ought to act according to the relation we stand in towards each other.

19. To be, with regard to state of mind.

Stand in awe, and sin not. Psalm 4.

20. To succeed; to maintain ones ground; not to fail; to be acquitted; to be safe.

Readers by whose judgment I would stand or fall--

21. To hold a course at sea; as, to stand from the shore; to stand for the harbor.

From the same parts of heavn his navy stands.

22. To have a direction.

The wand did not really stand to the metal, when placed under it.

23. To offer ones self as a candidate.

He stood to be elected one of the proctors of the university.

24. To place ones self; to be placed.

I stood between the Lord and you at that time-- Deuteronomy 5.

25. To stagnate; not to flow.

--Or the black water of Pomptina stands.

26. To be satisfied or convinced.

Though Page be a secure fool, and stand so firmly on his wifes frailty--

27. To make delay. I cannot stand to examine every particular.

28. To persist; to persevere.

Never stand in a lie when thou art accused.

29. To adhere; to abide.

Despair would stand to the sword.

30. To be permanent; to endure; not to vanish or fade ; as, the color will stand.

To stand by,

1. To be near; to be a spectator; to be present. I stood by when the operation was performed. This phrase generally implies that the person is inactive, or takes no part in what is done. In seamens language, to stand by is to attend and be ready. Stand by the haliards.

2. To be aside; to be placed aside with disregard.

In the mean time, we let the commands stand by neglected.

3. To maintain; to defend; to support; not to desert. I will stand by my friend to the last. Let us stand by our country. To stand by the Arundelian marbles, in Pope, is to defend or support their genuineness.

4. To rest on for support; to be supported.

This reply standeth by conjecture.

To stand for,

1. To offer ones self as a candidate.

How many stand for consulships?--Three.

2. To side with; to support; to maintain, or to profess or attempt to maintain. We all stand for freedom, for our rights or claims.

3. To be in the place of; to be the substitute or representative of. A cipher at the left hand of a figure stands for nothing.

I will not trouble myself, whether these names stand for the same thing, or really include one another.

4. In seamens language, to direct the course towards.

To stand from, to direct the course from.

To stand one in, to cost. The coat stands him in twenty dollars.

To stand in, or stand in for, in seamens language, is to direct a course towards land or a harbor.

To stand off,

1. To keep at a distance.

2. Not to comply.

3. To keep at a distance in friendship or social intercourse; to forbear intimacy.

We stand off from an acquaintance with God.

4. To appear prominent; to have relief.

Picture is best when it standeth off, as if it were carved.

To stand off, or off from, in seamens language, is to direct the course from land.

To stand off and on, is to sail towards land and then from it.

To stand out,

1. To project; to be prominent.

Their eyes stand out with fatness. Psalm 73.

2. To persist in opposition or resistance; not to yield or comply; not to give way or recede.

His spirit is come in, that so stood out against the holy church.

3. With seamen, to direct the course from land or a harbor.

To stand to,

1. To ply; to urge efforts; to persevere.

Stand to your tackles, mates, and stretch your oars.

2. To remain fixed in a purpose or opinion.

I still stand to it, that this is his sense.

3. To abide by; to adhere; as to a contract, assertion, promise, &c.; as, to stand to an award; to stand to ones word.

4. Not to yield; not to fly; to maintain the ground.

Their lives and fortunes were put in safety, whether they stood to it or ran away.

To stand to sea, to direct the course from land.

To stand under, to undergo; to sustain.

To stand up,

1. To rise from sitting; to be on the feet.

2. To arise in order to gain notice.

Against whom when the accusers stood up, they brought no accusation of such things as I supposed. Acts 25.

3. To make a party.

When we stood up about the corn--

To stand up for, to defend; to justify; to support, or attempt to support; as, to stand up for the administration.

To stand upon,

1. To concern; to interest. Does it not stand upon them to examine the grounds of their opinion? This phrase is, I believe, obsolete; but we say, it stands us in hand, that is, it is our concern, it is for our interest.

2. To value; to pride.

We highly esteem and stand much upon our birth.

3. To insist; as, to stand upon security.

To stand with, to be consistent. The faithful servants of God will receive what they pray for, so far as stands with his purposes and glory.

It stands with reason that they should be rewarded liberally.

To stand together, is used, but the last two phrases are not in very general use, and are perhaps growing obsolete.

To stand against, to oppose; to resist.

To stand fast, to be fixed; to be unshaken or immovable.

To stand in hand, to be important to ones interest; to be necessary or advantageous. It stands us in hand to be on good terms with our neighbors.

STAND, v.t.

1. To endure; to sustain; to bear. I cannot stand the cold or the heat.

2. To endure; to resist without yielding or receding.

So had I stood the shock of angry fat.

He stood the furious foe.

3. To await; to suffer; to abide by.

Bid him disband the legions--and stand the judgment of a Roman senate.

To stand ones ground, to deep the ground or station one has taken; to maintain ones position; in a literal or figurative sense; as, an army stands its ground, when it is not compelled to retreat. A man stands his ground in an argument, when he is able to maintain it, or is not refuted.

To stand it, to bear; to be able to endure; or to maintain ones ground or state; a popular phrase.

To stand trial, is to sustain the trial or examination of a cause; not to give up without trial.


1. A stop; a halt; as, to make a stand; to come to a stand, either in walking or in any progressive business.

The horse made a stand, when he charged them and routed them.

2. A station; a place or post where one stands; or a place convenient for persons to remain for any purpose. The sellers of fruit have their several stands in the market.

I took my stand upon an eminence.

3. Rank; post; station.

Father, since your fortune did attain so high a stand, I mean not to descend.

[In lieu of this, standing is now used. He is a man of high standing in his own country.]

4. The act of opposing.

We have come off like Romans; neither foolish in our stands, nor cowardly in retire.

5. The highest point; or the ultimate point of progression, where a stop is made, and regressive motion commences. The population of the world will not come to a stand, while the means of subsistence can be obtained. The prosperity of the Roman empire came to a stand in the reign of Augustus; after which it declined.

Vice is at stand, and at the highest flow.

6. A young tree, usually reserved when the other trees are cut. [English.]

7. A small table; as a candle-stand; or any frame on which vessels and utensils may be laid.

8. In commerce, a weight of from two hundred and a half to three hundred of pitch.

9. Something on which a thing rests or is laid; as a hay-stand.

Stand of arms, in military affairs, a musket with its usual appendages, as a bayonet, cartridge box, &c.

To be at a stand, to stop on account of some doubt or difficulty; hence, to be perplexed; to be embarrassed; to hesitate what to determine, or what to do.

Noah's 1828 Dictionary

First dictionary of the American Language!

Noah Webster, the Father of American Christian education, wrote the first American dictionary and established a system of rules to govern spelling, grammar, and reading. This master linguist understood the power of words, their definitions, and the need for precise word usage in communication to maintain independence. Webster used the Bible as the foundation for his definitions.

This standard reference tool will greatly assist students of all ages in their studies.

No other dictionary compares with the Webster's 1828 dictionary. The English language has changed again and again and in many instances has become corrupt. The American Dictionary of the English Language is based upon God's written word, for Noah Webster used the Bible as the foundation for his definitions. This standard reference tool will greatly assist students of all ages in their studies. From American History to literature, from science to the Word of God, this dictionary is a necessity. For homeschoolers as well as avid Bible students it is easy, fast, and sophisticated.




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1828 Noah Webster Dictionary

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